Keyhole limpet hemocyanin KLH is a large, multisubunit, oxygen-carrying, metalloprotein that is found in the hemolymph of the giant keyhole limpetMegathura crenulataa species of keyhole limpet that lives off the coast of Californiafrom Monterey Bay to Isla Asuncion off Baja California. Both encode large glycosylated proteins consisting of around amino acids and a molecular weight of around Hemocyanim, Daltonsexcluding the glycosylation.

The protein oligomerises to form a barrel shaped didecameric complex which is composed of 20 monomers. Each domain of a KLH subunit contains two copper atoms that together bind a single oxygen molecule O 2. The KLH protein is potently immunogenic, but does not cause an adverse immune response in humans. It is therefore highly prized as a vaccine carrier protein. Because of its size and glycosylation, KLH protein cannot be reproduced synthetically; it is available only as a purified biological product from the keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata.

KLH is purified from the hemolymph of Megathura crenulata by a series of steps that typically includes ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis, and may involve chromatographic purification to obtain the highest purity.

KLH purification may also include endotoxin removal, but this step is often unnecessary because the endotoxin serves as an adjuvant when injected for antibody production. If the protein becomes denatured or if the copper ions are lost in the purification process, the opalescent blue Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin Company disappears and the solution becomes a dull grayish color. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin KLH is used extensively as a carrier protein in the production of antibodies for research, biotechnology and therapeutic applications.

Haptens are substances with a low molecular weight such as peptidessmall proteins and drug molecules that are generally not immunogenic and require the aid of Compayn carrier protein to Co,pany a response from the immune system in the form of antibody production. KLH is an effective carrier protein for several reasons. Its large size and numerous epitopes generate a substantial immune response, and abundance of lysine residues Ql Light Company Limited coupling haptens allows a high hapten:carrier protein ratio, increasing the likelihood of generating hapten-specific antibodies.

In addition, because KLH is derived from the limpet, a gastropod, it is phylogenetically distant from mammalian proteins, thus reducing false positives Limpt immunologically-based research techniques in mammalian model organisms. KLH can also be a challenging molecule to work with because of its propensity to aggregate and precipitate. Aggregates remain immunogenic, but limit the ability to conjugate haptens, and are difficult to manipulate in the laboratory.

Haptens can be coupled to KLH using several Heemocyanin. A simple one-step coupling can Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin Company performed using the carbodiimide crosslinker EDC to covalently attach carboxyls to primary amines.

A sulfhydryl-containing hapten can then be reacted with the KLH to complete the immunogen without causing polymerization. The specificity of this reaction is ideal for situations where the cysteine is located away from the desired epitope e. Maleimide activated KLH, where the Keyholr part of this two step procedure has been completed, is commercially available. KLH is being tested in a variety of cancer vaccinesincluding non-Hodgkin's lymphomacutaneous melanomabreast and bladder cancer.

The rapidly growing interest in therapeutic vaccines i. Assays to monitor humoral immune responses against KLH in human serum have been developed to facilitate optimal use of biomedical KLH applications. Because of the beneficial uses of KLH, the Giant Keyhole Limpetfrom which KLH is derived, has been a subject of growing concern among fisheries biologists in the state The American Bottling Company California Hemocyaanin to the possibility of overharvest of the species for commercial purposes.

Giant Keyhole Limpets are not an abundant species to begin with, [8] and some divers have reported a decline in their populations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Journal of Molecular Biology. Bill, Giant Keyhole Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin Company.

J Biomol Tech. November Cancer Immunol Immunother. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from June Namespaces Article Talk.

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